The word inclusion does not refer to a child with special needs rather it embraces and
celebrates differences in each child as this is what makes each one unique and like a multi
flowered bouquet adds colour and variety to an otherwise drab classroom setting. One of the
most interesting frameworks for teaching a diverse class has come from the Universal Design
movement in architecture and product development which propagates that products and
environments should be utilized by all people without the need for special designs or
adaptations. This is the basic idea that is applied to learning in this framework called the
Universal Design for Learning or UDL. It calls for the curriculum to be so designed as to
accommodate all kinds of learners in the class, thus, it is not about providing special
education but full education in the real sense of the term.
The UDL framework is built on three principles which emphasize
? Multiple means of representation – that is provide learners opportunities to acquire
knowledge in a variety of ways.
? Multiple means of expression – that is provide learners options for expressing what
they have learnt
? Multiple means of engagement – that is motivate learners constantly to raise the bar
by offering appropriate challenges that increases their level of interest and
Universal, design, learning, learners, classrooms, educators, compassion
Katz, J. (2012). Teaching to Diversity: The Three- Block Model of Universal Design for
Learning. Portage & main Press.
Rapp, W.H. (2015) Universal Design for Learning in Action: 100 Ways to Teach All
Learners. Brookes Publishing
Rose, David H; Meyer, Anne (2002). Teaching every student in the digital age: universal
design for learning. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.
Ralabate, P. K. (2011). Universal Design for Learning: Meeting the Needs of All
Students. Retrieved from www.readingrockets.org/article/universal-design-learning-meetingneeds-all-students. (dated 25 April 2021)